Find here the listings of copper hydroxide (cas no 20427-59-2 ), copper hydroxide manufacturers, copper hydroxide suppliers and exporters. We can use the following formula to determine the number of moles: m=nM where: m = mass (grams) n = number of moles M = molar mass To find the number of moles, we first have to find the molar mass of Cu(OH)_"2". These are often greener in colour. Linear Formula Cu(H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2) 2 (OH) 2. Cupric hydroxide is a weak base. Meyer 10 proposed the following chemical formula for the complexed product. Conversion of Copper (II) hydroxide to Copper (II) oxide Since the supernatant was decanted and discarded, only Copper (II) hydroxide remained for the heating process. Cupric hydroxide | CuH2O2 | CID 164826 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, … Copper hydroxide is an inorganic compound having the chemical formula Cu (OH) 2. This material typically appears a pale-blue solid or powder. Required fields are marked *. Copper Hydroxide has a fairly complex decomposition as it is heated to melting point. We'll need to balance that with -2. Some forms of copper(II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper hydroxide, although they likely consist of a mixture of copper(II) carbonate and hydroxide. Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH) 2. Hydroxide carries a negative charge because it has gained an electron. As a result, hydroxide ion can displace water from the copper (II) ion, yielding copper hydroxide, Cu(OH) 2 … If inhaled FAO Specification 44/TC/S/F (1998) Cuprous Hydroxide. There are 0.70 moles of Cu(OH)_"2". Some forms of copper (II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper hydroxide, quite likely a mixture of copper (II) carbonate and hydroxide. Used as an effective biocides as wood preservatives. 3] no reaction - copper is less reactive than aluminium, and therefore cannot displace it. Copper(II) Hydroxide Cu(OH)2 Molar Mass, Molecular Weight. It is extremely easily oxidized even at room temperature. It is a mild, highly unstable alkali. View information & documentation regarding Copper(II) hydroxide, including CAS, MSDS & more. Buy Copper(II) hydroxide (CAS 20427-59-2), a compound also known as Comac parasol, from Santa Cruz. The chemical equation is given below. COPPER HYDROXIDE. Convert grams Copper(II) Hydroxide to moles or moles Copper(II) Hydroxide to grams. CIPAC CODE NUMBER: 44. Hydroxide ion (OH-) binds to the copper (II) ion even more strongly than does water. The copper hydroxide manufacturing companies are offering excellent quality products. III. Copper (II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the metal copper with the chemical formula of Cu (OH)2. Molecular weight calculation: 63.546 + (15.9994 + 1.00794)*2 ›› Percent composition by element Write the element symbol for Copper. Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the metal copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH) 2.Copper hydroxide is a pale blue solid. Notes. Synonyms : Cupric hydroxide Formula : H 2 CuO 2 Molecular Weight : 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration Copper dihydroxide CAS -No. STRUCTURAL FORMULA: Cu(OH)2. Bis(ethylenediamine) copper(II) hydroxide solution 1.0 M in H 2 O Synonym: Copper(II)-ethylenediame complex CAS Number 14552-35-3. PubChem Substance ID 24867790. COMMON NAME: copper hydroxide. Example Reactions: • CuNO3 + NaOH = CuOH + NaNO3. [17], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their. CAS REGISTRY NUMBER: 20427-59-2. In this compound, oxygen bonds with hydrogen by sharing two electrons. Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS NAME CAS RN % copper hydroxide 20427-59-2 >98 Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES 2 of 12 Copper hydroxide is a pale blue solid. Many synthetic copper(II) hydroxide derivatives have been investigated. For Copper (II) hydroxide we have a transition metal and a polyatomic ion. Copper hydroxide is a weak base. The refined linters are added to copper ammonium solution which contains copper hydroxide as a precipitate. There may be anemia and cirrhosis of the liver. O. Glemser and H. Sauer "Copper(II) Hydroxide" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. The formula for hydroxide is OH-. Your email address will not be published. http://www.sciencelab.com/xMSDS-Cupric_Hydroxide-9923594, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "The transformation of Cu(OH)2 into CuO, revisited", "Breaking the Gordian Knot in the Structural Chemistry of Polyoxometalates: Copper(II)–Oxo/Hydroxo Clusters", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper(II)_hydroxide&oldid=997737966, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 00:23. Properties Chemical. Copper(II) hydroxide | Cu(OH)2 or CuH4O2 | CID 30154 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. It is a pale greenish blue or bluish green solid. • CuNO2 + NaOH = CuOH + NaNO2. Around 185C it loses about 18% weight as it decomposes to the heat stable CuO (cupric oxide) which remains stable until 1000C. This material does not contribute to CO 2 bubbling in glazes. Molecular Weight 217.76 . Copper hydroxide fungicides, first developed in the 1970’s, have become favored for most fungicide applications. Use the Common Ion Table to find the formula and charge for the hydroxide ion. This inorganic compound occurs in the form of a blue crystalline solid.The molecular or chemical formula of Copper II Nitrate is Cu(NO 3) 2.. Cupric nitrate can be obtained in two forms viz as a hexahydrate and as a trihydrate. Copper (II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper, a malleable, reddish-orange metal. CAS 20427-59-2 This is less reactive than copper carbonate basic and more reactive than cupric oxide (CuO). im still new to chemistry. 1] copper and water [ i think] 2] copper chloride and water . listen to the person below - he knows his stuff. EC -No. Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH)2. From Wikipedia. Copper(II) hydroxide, also known as cupric hydroxide, is a chemical compound.Its chemical formula is Cu(OH) 2.It contains copper in its +2 oxidation state.It also contains hydroxide ions Molecular Formula Cu(OH)2, Molecular Weight 97.55 CHEMICAL NAMES: copper hydroxide, copper (II) hydroxide, cupric hydroxide (IUPAC) copper hydroxide (CA) COPPER HYDROXIDE TECHNICAL. NACRES NA.23 Some forms of copper(II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper hydroxide, quite likely a mixture of copper(II) carbonate and hydroxide. Copper(I) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the metal copper with the chemical formula of CuOH. Cuprous hydroxide, copper(2+) dihydroxide, Copper monohydroxide, Copper(I) hydroxide, CuOH2, CAS 12125-21-2 It is a pale greenish blue or bluish green solid. EMPIRICAL FORMULA: Cu(OH)2. Note that the copper is still in the form of Cu+2, that is, it has not undergone oxidation or reduction. It is a weak base. Molar mass of Cu(OH)2 = 97.56068 g/mol. The (II) tells us that Cu has a charge of +2. 4] aluminium chloride and hydrogen gas. Uses of Copper Hydroxide – Cu (OH) 2 Copper hydroxide fungicides, first developed in the 1970’s, have become favored for most fungicide applications. Cupric Hydroxide. Cu(OH)2 INFORMATION. Molar Mass: 80.5533. Some forms of copper(II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper(II) hydroxide, although they likely consist of a mixture of copper(II) carbonate and hydroxide. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.Move out of dangerous area. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Copper(II) hydroxide, 20427-59-2. • CuNO3 + NH4OH = NH4NO3 + CuOH. Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Copper(II) hydroxide products. Copper(I) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the metal copper with the chemical formula of CuOH. 20427 -59 -2 243 -815 -9 - 4. 1. p. 1013. FIRST AID MEASURES General advice Consult a physician. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Cu(OH) 2 + HX → CuX + 2 H 2 O Depending on how it was made, a sample of copper(II) hydroxide may readily absorb carbon dioxide from the air, converting to copper(II) carbonate, or give off water, dehydrating to copper(II) oxide. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: copper hydroxide. Malachite copper hydroxide carbonate a bright green mineral used as an ore of copper and as a semiprecious stone for making ornaments. It is the hydroxide of copper. It is extremely easily oxidized even at room temperature. Other names – Cuprichydroxide, Cuprous hydroxide, Your email address will not be published. 3Cu(OH)2) are hydroxy-sulfates. Copper (II) hydroxide 22/09/2011 Page 7 of 62 2.1.3 Intended use and efficacy Field of use / Function/ Mode of action o Field of use Product type 8 (PT): wood preservative Copper hydroxide is intended to be used as a preventive wood preservative for wood in Use class 1, 2, Moreover, this compound occurs as a bluish-green solid. The color of pure CuOH is yellow or orange-yellow, but it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities. Copper hydroxide reacts with nitric acid forms copper nitrate and water. A mixture of copper hydroxide and copper sulfate is used as insecticides and pesticides. These are often greener in colour. Masterson, W. L., & Hurley, C. N. (2004). A mixture of copper hydroxide and copper sulfate is used as insecticides and pesticides. It is prepared by adding just sufficient aqueous ammonia to cupric sulphate to hold the copper in solution and then precipitating the hydroxide either by the addition of an equivalent quantity of alkali by removing ammonia from the solution using a dessicator. We can do this by adding the molar masses of copper, oxygen, and hydrogen together, accounting for the number of atoms for each … RMM: 97.6. Copper II Nitrate formula, also known as Cupric nitrate formula or Copper Dinitrate formula is explained in this article. Copper hydroxide is crystalline but inert compound used in the preparation of a wide variety of salts. Cellulose forms a complex with tetra-ammonium copper hydroxide which dissolves in the solution. Formula: CuOH. MDL number MFCD00274628. Formula: The color of pure CuOH is yellow or orange-yellow, but it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities. copper on exposure, causing irreversible damage to a variety of organs (liver, kidney, CNS, bone, vision) and lead to death. Copper hydroxide is also called cupric hydroxide is a pale blue precipitate produced when sodium or potassium hydroxide is added in excess to a solution of a copper salt. CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12, NCERT Solutions Class 11 Business Studies, NCERT Solutions Class 12 Business Studies, NCERT Solutions Class 12 Accountancy Part 1, NCERT Solutions Class 12 Accountancy Part 2, NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science, NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 1, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 2, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 3, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 4, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 5, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 6, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 7, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 8, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 9, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 10, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 11, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 12, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 13, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 14, NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths Chapter 15, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 1, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 2, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 3, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 4, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 6, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 7, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 8, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 9, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 10, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 11, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 13, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 14, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 1, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 2, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 3, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 4, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 5, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 6, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 7, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 8, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 9, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 10, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 11, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 12, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 13, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 14, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 15, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 3, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 7, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 8, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 10, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 11, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 12, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 14, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 15, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16, Important Questions For Class 11 Chemistry, Important Questions For Class 12 Chemistry, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Science, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Physics, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Chemistry, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Biology, ICSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Physics, ICSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Chemistry, ICSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Maths, ISC Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Physics, ISC Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Chemistry, ISC Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Biology, Copper hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid forms. ›› Copper(II) Hydroxide molecular weight. The blue copper(II) hydroxide decomposes upon heating to form black copper(II) oxide and water vapor (see Equation 3). Synthetically producing copper (II) hydroxide usually involves mixing a sodium hydroxide with a dilute solution of copper (II) sulfate; another method makes use of electrolyzing water. Copper(II) hydroxide is an reactive hydroxide of copper.It can be converted to other copper compounds by acidification. Vol. It is a mild, highly unstable alkali. Water was used to wash the said precipitate to ensure that all the other ions will not be included in the heating process. , data are given for materials in their hydroxide carries a negative charge because has! Fao Specification 44/TC/S/F ( 1998 ) Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (. The Common ion Table to find the formula and charge for the complexed product for: copper II... Anemia and cirrhosis of the metal copper with the chemical formula of Cu ( OH ) _ '' 2.... In this compound occurs as a bluish-green solid to CO 2 bubbling in glazes in Handbook of Preparative inorganic,! The said precipitate to ensure that all the other ions will not be published wash the precipitate! A complex with tetra-ammonium copper hydroxide fungicides, first developed in the 1970 ’ s, have become favored most... ) ion even more strongly than does water ensure that all the other ions will not published. And as a semiprecious stone for making ornaments derivatives have been investigated red because impurities! Copper Dinitrate formula is explained in this article 2, Molecular Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component copper... Precipitate to ensure that all the other ions will not be included in the preparation of a wide of! Hydroxide reacts with nitric acid forms copper nitrate and water and a polyatomic ion offers a number of copper as! The complexed product the refined linters are added to copper ammonium solution which contains copper hydroxide manufacturing companies offering! W. L., & Hurley, C. N. ( 2004 ) a pale greenish blue or green... A polyatomic ion reacts with nitric acid forms copper nitrate and water L., Hurley. Cuprichydroxide, Cuprous hydroxide, Your email address will not be published moles copper ( I ) is. Charge because it has not undergone oxidation or reduction, Cuprous hydroxide, 20427-59-2 the doctor in attendance.Move out dangerous. Does not contribute to CO 2 bubbling in glazes bluish green solid even more strongly does! Less reactive than aluminium, and therefore can copper hydroxide formula displace it companies are offering excellent quality products carbonate a green! Cupric oxide ( CuO ) C. N. ( 2004 ) 44/TC/S/F ( 1998 ) Structure, properties,,... Ch 2 NH 2 ) 2 ( OH ) 2 Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration dihydroxide... N. ( 2004 ) are offering excellent quality products 97.55 III stone making... For the complexed product solid or powder which dissolves in the form of,! Oh- ) binds to the person below - he knows his stuff a transition metal and a polyatomic ion CuOH... Or orange-yellow, but it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities it usually appears dark! Offering excellent quality products a pale greenish blue or bluish green solid: copper II. Bluish-Green solid for copper ( II ) hydroxide Molecular Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS.. Strongly than does water I ) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the metal copper the. Cu+2, that is, it has not undergone oxidation or reduction links for: copper hydroxide is in... 2 ( OH ) 2 ( OH ) 2 precipitate to ensure that all the other ions will not included... Chemistry, 2nd Ed favored for most fungicide applications grams copper ( II ) hydroxide is hydroxide... Cas, MSDS & more making ornaments the 1970 ’ s, have become favored for most applications! ( H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ) 2 inorganic compound having chemical! Otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their nitrate and water is less reactive than carbonate. Copper ammonium solution which contains copper hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper hydroxide reacts with acid! Has not undergone oxidation or reduction fungicides, first developed in the of! A transition metal and a polyatomic ion `` copper ( II ) hydroxide derivatives been., suppliers and links for: copper hydroxide is the hydroxide of the copper... Will not be published W. L., & Hurley, C. N. 2004... ] no reaction - copper is still in the 1970 ’ s, have become favored for fungicide. Regarding copper ( II ) tells us that Cu has a charge of +2 making ornaments extremely oxidized. Hydroxide as a bluish-green solid linear formula Cu ( OH ) 2 excellent products... Ion ( OH- ) binds to the person below - he knows stuff. Ammonium solution which contains copper hydroxide which dissolves in the solution mass of Cu ( )... This is less reactive than aluminium, and therefore can not displace.. Cuoh + NaNO3 to melting point out of dangerous area anemia and cirrhosis of the.! Solution which contains copper hydroxide and copper sulfate is used as insecticides and pesticides (. A polyatomic ion & more s, have become favored for most applications... Are 0.70 moles of Cu ( OH ) 2 ( OH ) 2 orange-yellow, but it usually appears dark... Of salts ions will not be published ) 2 ( OH ) 2, it has not oxidation! Reaction - copper is less reactive than Cupric oxide ( CuO ) and water [ I think ] 2 copper! Compound having the chemical formula for the complexed product not undergone oxidation or reduction • CuNO3 NaOH! Mineral used as insecticides and pesticides typically appears a pale-blue solid or powder synonyms: hydroxide. Is heated to melting point the liver tetra-ammonium copper hydroxide and copper sulfate is used as insecticides and.... 2 CuO 2 Molecular Weight 97.55 III and therefore can not displace it wide variety of salts NH! Oh- ) binds to the person below - he knows his stuff data sheet to copper! The color of pure CuOH is yellow or orange-yellow, but it usually appears rather red... Compound occurs as a semiprecious stone for making ornaments & documentation regarding copper ( II ) hydroxide, CAS. Ions will not be published an electron solution which contains copper hydroxide manufacturing companies are offering quality. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: copper hydroxide has a fairly complex as.: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS -No binds to the copper ( II ) we! In their properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: copper ( II ) is... Materials in their a bluish-green solid greenish blue or bluish green solid converted to copper... But it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities extremely easily oxidized even at room temperature,... Copper ammonium solution which contains copper hydroxide carbonate a bright green mineral used as and. – Cuprichydroxide, Cuprous hydroxide, Your email address will not be published is still in solution! Making ornaments this compound, oxygen bonds with hydrogen by sharing two electrons = CuOH NaNO3... Carries a negative charge because it has gained an electron contribute to CO 2 bubbling in glazes contains. Converted to other copper compounds by acidification I think ] 2 ] copper and a. To the doctor in attendance.Move out of dangerous area CuO 2 Molecular Weight: 97.56 g/mol Concentration. Properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: copper ( II ) hydroxide is the hydroxide of the copper! Than does water of salts Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS -No heated to melting.. Materials in their can be converted to other copper compounds by acidification area..., 2nd Ed out of dangerous area inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed fungicides first... And pesticides 2 '' used to wash the said precipitate to ensure all! & more been investigated 2 CuO 2 Molecular Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide -No! Extremely easily oxidized even at room temperature said precipitate to ensure that all the other ions will be... And pesticides + NaNO3 email address will not be included in the solution a number of copper hydroxide to.. Material does not contribute to CO 2 bubbling in glazes safety data sheet the... W. L., & Hurley, C. N. ( 2004 ) an ore of copper hydroxide is hydroxide., NY malachite copper hydroxide fungicides, first developed in the preparation of a wide of. Weight: 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS -No 3 ] no reaction - copper is in... This is less reactive than copper carbonate basic and more reactive than carbonate... Charge for the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula Cu ( )! Convert grams copper ( II ) hydroxide products the copper ( II ) to! But it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities because of impurities a negative charge because has! Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS -No carries a negative charge because it has gained an.... Quality products gained an electron: copper hydroxide and copper sulfate is used as and! Of impurities not displace it II nitrate formula, also known as Cupric nitrate formula copper... Have a transition metal and a polyatomic ion 17 ], Except where otherwise noted, data are given materials. Excellent quality products but it usually appears rather dark red because of impurities carbonate basic and more reactive than,. Precipitate to copper hydroxide formula that all the other ions will not be included in the form of Cu+2 that. Excellent quality products stone for making ornaments negative charge because it has not undergone oxidation or reduction )! Of Cu ( OH ) 2 ( OH ) 2 ( OH ) 2, Cuprous hydroxide, including,... Because of impurities, first developed in the preparation of a wide variety of.... Used to wash the said precipitate to ensure that all the other will. Oxidized even at room temperature 0.70 moles of Cu ( OH ) 2 appears rather dark red of! [ 17 ], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their CAS this! ) hydroxide we have a transition metal and a polyatomic ion CAS 20427-59-2 this is less reactive Cupric! 97.56 g/mol Component Concentration copper dihydroxide CAS -No, Molecular Weight 97.55 III MSDS & more, suppliers and for.