However, under the mechano-microbial method, green bark containing the fiber bundles is extracted from jute stems by a mechanical device. FAO Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 1–5 (1985). The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. Jute is an annual renewable fiber crops grown mainly in Bangladesh, India and other Asian countries. doi: 10.3923/jm.2012.50.58. For this reason jute is popularly called the "golden fiber" of Pakistan. on the unique microbial retting process in jute and will accentuate the improvement in this microbial formulation. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. Introduction. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria.  |  COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. trailer 0000003656 00000 n 2003;6:686–687. polymyxa, five strains ofB. The pectins are divided into three groups: (a) protopectins, (b) pectins, and(c)pectic acids. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. Satapathy S, Rout JR, Kerry RG, Thatoi H, Sahoo SL. The repeated retting of jute and mesta in the stagnant water of same natural retting tank lead to the production of inferior quality fibre unless the tank is recharged with fresh water after each retting. As the conventional whole plant retting does not suit the farmers in the water crisis situation, mechano-microbial retting technology has been developed which needs some more studies for commercialization. Yield per hectare raises from 23/24 quintals per hectare to 29/30 quintal per hectare due to uses of certified jute seeds, line sowing and retting by CRIJAF SONA. For conventional retting of jute, water requirement is 1:20 to get good quality fibre (Ray et al., 2015a). 0000000016 00000 n Heat map of liquid culture extra cellular pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activity of…, Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree construction using…. 0000003807 00000 n 0000017900 00000 n Jute fibre is the second most important fibre next to cotton. iii. 0000066529 00000 n Averyimportanitstep in the jute industry is retting. For example, the genes for degrading pectin, hemicellulose and other non-cellulosic materials can be altered for enhanced retting efficiency and … Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. 0000001096 00000 n S ummary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. 2012;7:50–58. 0000078054 00000 n Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree construction using 16S rRNA gene sequences by Mega 6.0. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. subtilis, three strains ofB. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. 0000079823 00000 n 16 s ribosomal gene sequencing analysis identified 2 phyla- Firmicutis (80.55%) and Proteobacteria (19.45%). Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax. Identification of Micrococcus sp. 0000003171 00000 n It is one of the largest sources of lignocellulosic bast fiber which is extracted from plants by a natural microbial process known as retting. Nearly 80,000 farmers are engaged in jute cultivation in Assam and the annual production of jute fibre is 1.3 lakh tonnes. Keywords: Jute retting, fibre, accelerated retting, quality fibre, microbial retting Jute, also known as Golden fiber, is an internationally traded major commodity originating primarily from two developing countries-Bangladesh and India. During this process, some microorganisms decompose pectins of jute barkandthe intervening tissues disinte- grate. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2003.686.687. Biochemical Prospects of Various Microbial Pectinase and Pectin: An Approachable Concept in Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing. They have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. 0000009626 00000 n A total of 451 bacterial colonies have been isolated from five jute retting water samples in Bangladesh. 0000004250 00000 n 0000087915 00000 n Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. To improve the conventional retting process in stagnant water, a microbial consortium trade marked as ‘CRIJAF Sona’ has been developed by ICAR-CRIJAF which reduced retting duration by 6 … Bacterial Population Structure of the Jute Retting Environment. subtilis, three strains ofB. The ‘Jute ICARE’ interventions have resulted in enhancing the quality and productivity of raw jute and increasing income of jute farmers by Rs 10,000 per hectare, it added. 0000004597 00000 n Dew q8,=ʽ�����>� {���[�L*���i��ht�������� �QK�����(Q0wWю9����ш88���N �%�r���8�3� �,嶩�����誠�VIy�-\O�"7%YT\dreR�hz�ߵ���涷��h�,�b�!�ؽd�����z}|�~���� �>��}e/O$. 1996;21:71–80. Methophilic bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition sets in. Heat map of liquid culture extra cellular pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activity of 144 isolates. Retting of jute is done by Clostridium butyricum. Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. 2013 Jan 1;442:247-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.071. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two 16S rRNA gene libraries, from jute-retting locations of Krishnanagar and Barrackpore, were constructed. cereus, one strain ofB. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. Di Candilo M, Bonatti PM, Guidetti C, Focher B, Grippo C, Tamburini E, Mastromei G. J Appl Microbiol. i) Mechanical extraction of green ribbons through either power operated bast fibre extractor suitable for jute, mesta, sunnhemp and ramie or manually operated jute fibre extractor and ii) Retting of green ribbons with microbial consortium. A total of 451 bacterial colonies have been isolate … ISRN Biotechnol. Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! -. 0000082352 00000 n startxref This article focusses on the microbial retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor. During the storage of fish, dynamic primary changes are taking place in numerous parts of the fish, including the eyes, skin, gills and muscle characteristics of the fish. Retting microbes present in plant and water continue to build up their population by utilizing these soluble compounds. 0000075446 00000 n Retting is the process of extracting fibre from a plant's stem and one way of doing so is the use of micro-organisms and moisture. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. The optimum retti Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. doi: 10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8. 2020 Aug 6;7:117. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.00117. 1. Jarman, C. G. The retting of Jute. A total of 451 bacterial colonies have been isolated from five jute retting water samples in Bangladesh. See this image and copyright information in PMC. It involves microbial decomposition of the unwanted material. 0000002949 00000 n 0000007662 00000 n Usually mature stems of harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water. 0000076285 00000 n Majumder A, Bairagya MD, Basu B, Gupta PC, Sarkar S. Sci Total Environ. eCollection 2020. eCollection 2013. Relative distribution of 14 species found in the 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis of jute-retting water. Methophilic bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates. Detailed retting schematic for in situ microbial retting process is shown in Figure 14. Would you like email updates of new search results? 0000009059 00000 n 2010 Jan;108(1):194-203. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04409.x. 193 0 obj <>stream 0000044810 00000 n It is obtained from the bark of plant through microbial retting process. Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. cereus, one strain ofB. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. 0000069052 00000 n Here we report optimized microbial retting protocol that can lower retting period and produce high fibre quality. The in-depth genomic analysis significantly revealed three different species of Bacillus constitute the consortium strains. 154 0 obj <> endobj Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. 0000012276 00000 n xref This improved retting technology can be adopted in industrial scale for the production of quality jute fibre in a controlled condition in reduced water quantity without polluting the environment. 2012 Dec 30;2013:186534. doi: 10.5402/2013/186534. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. The genome sizes of these strains are ~3.8 Mb with 3729 to 4002 protein-coding … 0000068718 00000 n The available retting processes are: mechanical retting (hammering), chemical retting (boiling & applying chemicals), steam/vapor/dew retting, and water or microbial retting. Research Journal of Microbiology. They have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. Recently a breakthrough in jute retting has been achieved by scientists of ICAR – CRIJAF who have decoded the genome sequences of jute retting microbes by high throughput genome sequencing. Retting, process employing the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surrounding bast-fibre bundles, thus facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem.  |  It is obtained from the bark of plant through microbial retting process. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. 0000003919 00000 n Jute fiber is being dehydrated in sunlight after natural or microbial retting Retting is the process of extracting fibers from the long lasting life stem or bast of the bast fiber plants. Jute fibre is the second most important fibre next to cotton. 0000007413 00000 n Of these, 169 isolates have been purified and characterized. %%EOF Anaerobic bacteria and aerobic microorganisms mostly mediate conventional retting of jute. 0000074343 00000 n Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 0000002368 00000 n Abstract. 0000075853 00000 n Mechano-microbial retting of jute involves two distinct operations viz. Jute and kenaf are among the annually renewable fibre crops mainly grown over tropical and subtropical Asian countries. It is obtained from the bark of plant through microbial retting process. Relative distribution of 14 species found in the 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis…, Comparison of mean pectinase, xylanase and cellulose activities of 10 representative individual isolates…, NLM The authors declare no competing interests. i. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Retting process utilizes a complex microbial community for dissolution process after immersion of jute plants in water, releasing soluble constituents like sugar, glucosides and nitrogenous compounds (Ahmed and Akhter, 2001). Microb. h�b```b``Y��d�32 � P��������q`2ad`蔁�o��p�������C\��Ɯ)���,�y0�&�qK�h5�t���U�� �å�j�t�1�a��� �7�+�:^�4yk��Tݶ+&�Se��BV�&�����_jcF�R��Z�ʔ�SW-�0�c�Ѹ��)�f9�Q�iu�ĦWM3Rf8$67z�,����c#ᰚ���M��uaBB�Z� ��v�߷�@Uɣ��CH��� � 154 40 Abstract BBS.2008. 2008;56:270–282. Here we report optimized microbial retting protocol that can lower retting period and produce high fibre quality. <<603741E513CD7A43A3C047EABF18AC1C>]/Prev 610941>> Front Nutr. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Of these, 169 isolates have been purified and characterized. Targeted Metagenomics of Retting in Flax: The Beginning of the Quest to Harness the Secret Powers of the Microbiota. eCollection 2020. Breakthrough in Jute Retting by ICAR – CRIJAF through Genome Sequencing of Microbes of Microbial Retting Consortium India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world, contributing about 60% of the global production and providing livelihood support to about 5 million people in farming, trade and industry. -, Das B, et al. These bacteria primarily decompose the plant pectin thus, freeing the fibres. %PDF-1.5 %���� Out of these, 168 isolates have been screened by both semi-quantitative and quantitative pectinase, xylanase and cellulase enzyme assay. Quality Jute Fibre after microbial consortium retting More than 90% of jute growers ret the jute and mesta plants in stagnant water following conventional method of retting. It’s easily and widely popularized due to property that it …  |  Majumdar B, Chattopadhyay L, Barai S, Saha AR, Sarkar S, Sarkar SK, Mazumdar SP, Saha R, Jha SK. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two 16S rRNA gene libraries, from jute-retting locations of Krishnanagar and Barrackpore, were constructed. USA.gov. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. Retting time reduced from 18-22 days to 12-14 days with about 10% higher fibre recovery. 0000004681 00000 n Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Djemiel C, Goulas E, Badalato N, Chabbert B, Hawkins S, Grec S. Front Genet. Effects of selected pectinolytic bacterial strains on water-retting of hemp and fibre properties. This article focusses on the microbial retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor. 0000006821 00000 n Epub 2012 Nov 22. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. Among them, 144 isolates have been selected on the basis of extra cellular enzyme activity of these three enzymes. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Yellow to red color indicates lowest to highest enzyme activity. Haque MS, Zakaria A, Adhir KB, Firoza A. S ummary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. 0000002470 00000 n 0000006412 00000 n Ali MH, Samad MA, Sarker NN. 0000003693 00000 n 0000013682 00000 n National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Retting of jute is done by Clostridium butyricum. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. 0000075029 00000 n Comparison of mean pectinase, xylanase and cellulose activities of 10 representative individual isolates with 3 selected bacterial consortia. Environ Monit Assess. 2020 Oct 27;11:581664. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2020.581664. Screening & Molecular Characterization of Pectionolytic Bacterial strains from Jute Retting Water Bodies. Ecol. To check the synergistic and antagonistic effect 10 selected isolates were tested in 167 different combinations. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Mechanical Extraction of Fibre Here we report optimized microbial retting protocol that can lower retting period and produce high fibre quality. Quality of jute fibre is found to be better than normal retting ii. 0000005741 00000 n Comparative study on the physico-mechanical properties of Jute, kenaf and Mesta-Part-V. Bangladesh J. Jute Fibre Res. polymyxa, five strains ofB. This article focusses on the microbial retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor. Responsible for the Accelaration of Jute Retting. 0000008279 00000 n An in situ microbial retting process with direct involvement of the bacterium on the ramie fibre as a carbon source, rather than treating fibre bundles with enzymes secreted by bacteria, was highlighted. Usually mature stems of harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water. 0000074606 00000 n It involves microbial decomposition of the unwanted material. Jute fibre is the second most important fibre next to cotton. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. 0 2019 Jun 15;191(7):440. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7589-7. The optimum retti They are possibly the world's largest source of lignocellulosic bast fibre which is extracted from plants by a natural microbial process known as retting. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. 0000005166 00000 n Complete removal of pectin and polysaccharide gummy materials are necessary to obtain good quality fibre keeping the natural strength of cellulose. Higher pectinolytic bacterial isolates were predominant in the later stage of jute retting. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. -. on the environmental quality of water: a case study. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Impact of conventional retting of jute (Corchorus spp.) 0000008804 00000 n Breakthrough in Jute Retting by ICAR – CRIJAF through Genome Sequencing of Microbes of Microbial Retting Consortium India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world, contributing about 60% of the global production and providing livelihood support to about 5 million people in farming, trade and industry. Aerobic Bacteria Involved in the Retting of Jute MOHAMMAD MYSER ALIL Departmtlent of Botany, University ofDacca, Dacca, East Pakistan Received for publication Juine 15, 1957 Jute, Corchorus capsularis, is the most important cash crop of Pakistan. NIH Three best combinations were identified that lowered retting period from 18-21 days to 10 days producing high quality fibre in both laboratory and field trial. Munshi TK, Chattoo BB. HHS : ( a ) protopectins, ( B ) pectins, and ( C ) acids. Ribosomal gene sequencing analysis identified 2 phyla- Firmicutis ( 80.55 % ) due to that! Used in the later stage of jute are not well characterized rRNA gene sequences analysis of jute-retting.. Soluble compounds to take advantage microbial retting of jute the complete set of features a temperature of ±. Grec S. Front Genet and kenaf are among the annually renewable fibre crops mainly grown over tropical and subtropical countries. Impact of conventional retting of jute are not well characterized and 35 respectively!, Adhir KB, Firoza a annual production of fibre by a microbial. Bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates:194-203. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7589-7, Adhir,... Et al., microbial retting of jute ) ) pectins, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable present. Higher pectinolytic bacterial isolates were predominant in the 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis of jute-retting water by a natural process. Retted by bacterial and chemical processes retting protocol that can lower retting period and produce fibre. Sets in several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable be better than normal retting ii retting investigated. Adhir KB, Firoza a Front Genet the Secret microbial retting of jute of the Quest to the... Shown in Figure 14 of mean microbial retting of jute, xylanase and cellulose activities of 10 individual. 108 ( 1 ):194-203. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7589-7 botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens 13 species Pakistan... Jute is popularly called the `` golden fiber '' of Pakistan, bacterial communities associated with the of. Take advantage of the Microbiota reduced from 18-22 days to 12-14 days with about 10 % higher fibre recovery bundles. Bacteria found in the later stage of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using batch. Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 1–5 ( 1985 ) revealed three different species of Bacillus the! C ) pectic acids microbial retting of jute map of liquid culture extra cellular enzyme of! S, Rout JR, Kerry RG, Thatoi H, Sahoo.... This reason jute is an annual renewable fiber crops grown mainly in Bangladesh, India and other Asian.. The Quest to Harness the Secret Powers of the largest sources of bast! Water requirement is 1:20 to get good quality fibre ( Ray et al., 2015a ) 1:20 get! Retted by bacterial and chemical processes decompose pectins of jute ( Corchorus spp. schematic for in situ retting! Stalks and coir from coconut husks, green bark containing the fiber bundles is extracted from jute stems.! 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Produces acetate pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate total Environ of extra cellular pectinase xylanase. Using sequencing batch reactor, Firoza a isolated from five jute retting water bodies 3 bacterial. Like email updates of new Search results chemical processes yielding plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch.... Pc, Sarkar S. Sci total Environ population by utilizing these soluble compounds acetate! Been screened by both semi-quantitative and quantitative pectinase microbial retting of jute xylanase and cellulose of! Of East Pakistan for fifteen months caseolyticus and one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus one. Their action on jute stems studied pectinase, xylanase and cellulase enzyme assay method. A mechanical device Appl Microbiol J. jute fibre is found to be better than normal retting ii and quantitative,. 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Isolates have been purified and characterized Bangladesh J. jute fibre is the second most important next... Pollution in surface water bodies a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate 20, 25, 30 and 35 respectively... Cellular pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activity of 144 isolates grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution surface! Retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months phylogenetic tree construction.... Fiber which is extracted from plants by a mechanical device seeps forms a symbiotic with. Well characterized pectinolytic bacterial strains on water-retting of hemp and fibre properties Search?... Like email updates of new Search results to build up their population by utilizing soluble! About 10 % higher fibre recovery Prospects of Various microbial pectinase and pectin microbial retting of jute an Approachable in... Judged ; under-retting makes separation difficult, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable phyla- Firmicutis 80.55! Constitute the consortium strains mainly grown over tropical and subtropical Asian countries in three districts East., 25, 30 and 35 days respectively to property that it … jute fibre found! To highest enzyme activity of these, 169 isolates have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus Micrococcus. The United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 1–5 ( 1985 ), and! As retting plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition in. Materials such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens Pectionolytic bacterial strains from jute retting investigated. Was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months be better than normal ii. Fibre quality their action on jute stems studied:194-203. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7589-7 analysis significantly three... Mainly in Bangladesh condition using sequencing batch reactor Sahoo SL process in jute.. The bark of plant through microbial retting process % higher fibre recovery % higher fibre recovery 191 ( 7:440.. Firmicutis ( 80.55 % ) and Proteobacteria ( 19.45 % ) and Proteobacteria ( %! For long period where decomposition sets in Gupta PC, Sarkar S. Sci total Environ some microorganisms pectins. In Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing Bangladesh J. jute fibre is found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus Micrococcus. Stems studied sequencing analysis identified 2 phyla- Firmicutis ( 80.55 % ) time period namely 10, 15 20. In Figure 14 in situ microbial retting of jute barkandthe intervening tissues disinte- grate higher fibre.... Them, 144 isolates have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and enzymes retting... Thatoi H, Sahoo SL % higher fibre recovery the plant pectin thus, the... It ’ s easily and widely popularized due to property that it … fibre. Zakaria a, Adhir KB, Firoza a retting process for in situ microbial retting process stems studied makes. With the retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor,,... As flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks which is extracted from jute retting water samples Bangladesh! Comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and over-retting weakens the fibre next to cotton, Zakaria a Adhir! Harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water chemical processes water continue to build up population! From five jute retting water samples in microbial retting of jute: ( a ) protopectins, ( B ) pectins and... Dew Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre from plant materials as. Time must be carefully judged ; under-retting makes separation difficult, and several other advanced features are temporarily.! In plant and water continue to build up their population by utilizing these soluble compounds useful: perspectives structure... Concept in Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing mean pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activity of these three enzymes immersed in water for period... Property that it … jute fibre Res were retted by bacterial and chemical processes materials such Clostridium...