In the post-conflict situation in El Salvador, access to primary education expanded rapidly, while unequal financial capacity of parents, region, and Association for Community Education was reported to result in disparity of school education and learning performance of students (Cuéllar-Marchelli, 2003). School councillors can self-register to access the Interactive Online training through The Big Canvas learning management system (LMS) and complete these modules in sections, in their own time and pace. Who bears the cost of schooling is a primarily important question to ask, since the education policies and international discussion on the role of community often emphasize its benefit as a means to fill the financial gap left by the government. The section “Conceptual Framework of Community Participation in School Management” demonstrates the analytical framework of community participation, including historical roles of community in school management, the school-based management theory, and types and levels of participation. For instance, the recent upsurge of decentralization devolved decision-making power to the community level in many developing countries. Problems associated with bringing about change, Rivalry between groups within communities, Promoting good school-community relationships, Ways in which the community may contribute, Receiving training certificate from Director of NCERD, Unit 1 Defining the Parameters of School Management, Unit 3 School Managers and Governing Bodies. A school principal is a primary leader in a school building. However, the survey also noted that parent engagement remains a challenge for many schools. There are also countries with diverse ethnic and cultural groups where decentralization becomes an option to weaken the conflict between groups. Abstract. People can also take on more than one type of role in one school, for example working as a bilingual teaching assistant in the classroom part time, while also working as a parent support advisor to their particular language community, or working as an invigilator during the examining period. Individual and organizational behavioral changes are critical to increase the level of participation. Conceptual Framework of Community Participation in School Management Historical Roles of Community in School Management. They practice participative management, which includes teachers, pupils and the community. 1343 Aydin Balyer et al. Key terms: School management team, curriculum change process, curriculum implementation, curriculum, change, curriculum change, factors influencing curriculum change, Curriculum 2005, phases in managing curriculum change, the role … A school that engages their whole school community to address the problem of bullying is much more likely to succeed in preventing bullying. … The role of community in school management attracted attention in the 1970s, when the mainstream idea, that government is the sole actor to provide educational services, was challenged, and community-led alternative education programs were proposed as more relevant and effective for providing basic education. Present paper is an essential contribution to understand the role of social worker in community development (CD). Role in Supervision: The head of a school should not simply sit in his office. Community participation in school management has great potential for removing mistrust and distance between people and schools through nurturing transparency of information and culture of mutual respect and for jointly pursuing improvement of schools by sharing vision, process, and results. Primary schools are not obliged to have boards of management. A number of community activities may be launched by the headmaster on behalf of the school. The long route of accountability is for the citizens to elect the political leaders who then formulate education policies to respond to the will of the voters and to direct and supervise schools to deliver the service demanded by the citizens. In Afghanistan, for instance, teachers and community members offered home schooling for girls who had been excluded from public schooling under the Taliban regime. When roles are clear and relationships are sound… A school-site leadership team, often comprised of educators, parents, community partners, and others, is responsible for creating a shared vision for the school, identifying desired results and helping align and integrate the work of partners with the school. In sub-Sharan Africa (SSA), for instance, community-based providers and faith-based organizations supported educational provisions even before independence, until the 1960s and 1970s when the governments in the region exerted their own influence on educational development. In other countries, where community participation has a long history of compensating for the weak management of government schools, communities are actively involved in hiring teachers themselves and contributing to school in various forms. In-depth analysis of cases is required to carefully investigate the process of producing or not producing the impact. Related posts: What is the Role … Furthermore, as community members lacked the willingness to change the situation, and lacked as well the understanding and confidence necessary to discuss the quality of education, community participation did not lead to an improvement in the quality of education in Ghana and the Philippines (Chapman, 1998; Chapman et al., 2002; Mfum-Mensah & Friedson-Ridenour, 2014). Case studies from Ghana and Indonesia have revealed that the hierarchical behavior of head teachers and teachers could not change the teachers’ attitudes to be more independent and spontaneous during reform to the local curriculum, and the existing pedagogical practices persisted (Bjork, 2003; Pryor, 2005; Yeom, Acedo, & Utomo, 2002). Private schools driven by excess demand often offer low-cost and affordable education, while some suffer from low quality education when there is no competition with other public or private schools. In Cambodia, for example, it is reported that parents’ norm, as being obedient to teachers and community leaders, as well as teachers’ perceptions that regard parents as passive, with no interest in the learning environment of schools, jointly led to the limited degree of parental involvement in school management (Shoraku, 2008). Finally, although this article did not discuss the issue of exclusiveness and the politics of community, a community may not be able to agree to one goal and may face multiple vested interests and intensions. Devolved power is dynamically re-allocated within the system among school, community, local government, and central government in various educational reforms. It is important to note that the types of participation vary depending on the purpose of participation and the actual power devolved to the community. 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