The second battle began on 15 February, with the controversial destruction of the monastery by heavy and medium bombers. This multi-faceted battle marked one of the longest and bloodiest engagements of the Italian campaign during World War II. "[10] However, his written orders to Lucas did not really reflect this. Apparently the two allies had different concepts: the Americans viewed such a landing as another distraction from Cassino, but if they could not break through at Cassino, the men at Anzio would be trapped. The initial landing achieved complete surprise with no opposition and a jeep patrol even made it as far as the outskirts of Rome. I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. Anzio 22 January-24 May 1944 During the early morning hours of 22 January 1944, troops of the Fifth Army swarmed ashore on a fifteen-mile stretch of Italian beach near the prewar resort towns of Anzio and Nettuno. [5] By January he had recovered and was badgering his commanders for a plan of attack, accusing them of not wanting to fight but of being interested only in drawing pay and eating rations. These canals divided the land into personal tracts with new stone houses for colonists from north Italy. The 1944 Battle of Anzio stemmed from the Allied attempt to draw German troops off the Gustav Line during Operation Shingle. Allied forces at Anzio Beachhead - 22nd Jan 1944. After Italy agreed to peace with the Allies in Sept. 1943 the German army defended Italy as a buffer zone against an Allied invasion of Germany. Allied leaders were Lieutenant General Mark Clark, Major General John P. Lucas, General Harold Alexander and Major General Lucian Truscott, along with 36,000 soldiers. The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944, with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle to June 5, 1944 with the capture of Rome. He had written on February 10 to General Alexander[37] encouraging him to exert his authority and Alexander had visited the beachhead on February 14 to tell Lucas he wished for a breakout as soon as the tactical situation allowed. But for men like these, the Battle of Anzio couldn’t have been won. General Harold Alexanderhad thought of a plan using five divisions. Allied intelligence thought that five or six German divisions were in the area, although U.S. 5th Army intelligence severely underestimated the German 10th Army's fighting capacity at the time, believing many of their units would be worn out after the defensive battles fought since September. In the first days of operations, the command of the Italian resistance movement had a meeting with the Allied General Headquarters: it offered to guide the Allied Force through the Alban Hills territory, but the Allied Command refused the proposal. Part of the Italian Theater of World War II (1939-1945), the campaign was the result of the Allies' inability to penetrate the Gustav Line following their landings at Salerno. He ensured the event was a strictly American affair by stationing military police at road junctions to refuse entry to the city by British military personnel.[70]. The Battle of Anzio The 1940’s was a time of great conflict between the United States and Europe. The Allies finally broke out of the beachhead in late May, facilitating the advance that led to the eventual capture of Rome. With two divisions landed, and facing two or three times that many Germans, it would have been reasonable for Lucas to consider the beachhead insecure. The operation failed to break through, but it partly succeeded in its primary objective. Also, he could certainly argue that his interpretation of his orders from Clark was not an unreasonable one. General Mark Clark was so eager that the world should see pictures showing him as the liberator of Rome, that he allowed the armies of a delighted Kesselring to escape. If General Mark Clark had been in the German Army, Hitler would have had him shot. What was the Liberty Ship? With the breakout from Anzio finally achieved on 23 May, the reunited armies pursued the Germans north. The marshes were turned into cultivatable land in the 1930s under Benito Mussolini. However, it was later reselected. Kesselring quickly contained the Allied threat and massed German troops. Anzio, Battle of (1944). As a result, the forces of the German Tenth Army fighting at Cassino were able to withdraw and rejoin the rest of Kesselring's forces north of Rome, regroup, and make a fighting withdrawal to his next major prepared defensive position on the Gothic Line. Operation Shingle, one of the most ill-conceived operations of the war, took place thirty-five miles southwest of Rome on January 22, 1944, when a corps-sized Anglo-American expeditionary force commanded by U.S. major general John P. Lucas landed at Anzio and Nettuno. But, instead of striking inland to cut lines of communication of the German Tenth Army's units fighting at Monte Cassino, Truscott, on Clark's orders, reluctantly turned his forces north-west towards Rome, which was captured on June 4, 1944. Here is a quick synopsis. Ultimately the Allied forces both broke out to the South, linking up with Northward advancing forces of 5th Army, and to the North, seizing Rome. How many were built in the United States by 1943? [47] After his visit Alexander wrote to the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Alan Brooke, saying:[47]. Name of Battle Date(s) Who Won? It was part of the battle of Anzio that followed Operation Shingle. To speed up the advance, Winston Churchill ordered the British commanders to present a plan for a two-division amphibious assault at Anzio, Italy behind the Gustav Line. This, vain-glorious blunder, the worst of the entire war, lost us a stunning victory, lengthened the war by many months and earned Mark Clark the contempt of other American and British generals. In the morning of February 4 the situation was becoming more serious, with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards (of 24th Guards Brigade), only having one cohesive rifle company left and on the opposite side of the salient, the 6th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (of 2nd Brigade) was beginning to crumble and later lost three complete companies as prisoners. Kesselring was informed of the landings at 3 a.m. January 22. The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944, with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle to June 5, 1944 with the capture of Rome. Allied leaders were Lieutenant General Mark Clark, Major General John P. Lucas, General Harold Alexander and Major General Lucian Truscott, along with 36,000 soldiers. However, a counterattack using VI Corps' reserves halted the German advance, and on February 20, Fischfang petered out with both sides exhausted. A succession of attacks resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, though no budge in the stalemate for four months. Questions-European Theatre 1. After a four-month stalemate during which British and American losses totaled seven thousand killed, thirty-six thousand wounded or missing, and forty-four thousand hospitalized from various nonbattle injuries and sickness, the siege of Anzio finally ended on May 23, 1944, when the Allies launched a breakout offensive. Thirteen Allied troops were killed, and 97 wounded; about 200 Germans had been taken as POWs. Succession of attacks resulted in heavy casualties on both sides you know who?. 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