Cultivation of perishable crops like vegetables, fruits and dairy products can also be done efficiently and profitably if elaborate transport, marketing and storage facilities are available. In the developed countries like the UK, Germany, Netherlands and Japan the consumption of chemical fertilizers is much higher to that of India. Evaluate varieties for yield consistency from location to location and year to year to ensure for robust, high performance. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. These varieties, as stated at the outset, require elaborate arrange­ments of canal and tube well irrigation. The highest yields are achieved in areas of well-managed irrigation and with adequate amounts of chemical fertilizers. Results in this publication are aggregated over a number of years and on an The National Variety Release Committee (NVRC) approved the … To meet water requirements, there must be a controlled source of water at the disposal of farmers. How does planting high yield crop varieties make farming more sustainable 1 See answer Answer 0 Answer: The more high yield crops are planted, the more production there will be from plants. They should advance loans to the farmers at a reasonable rate of interest. No species can be eliminated from nature and continuous disturbance of its habitat through agricultural practices increased the emergence and diversity of pests. Several transformation protocols have been deployed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes into rice. High yield stability usually refers to a genotype’s ability to perform consistently, whether at high or low yield levels, across a wide range of environments. The chimeric RNAi-ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) construct designed to target ACS homologs effectively repressed ethylene production in tomato fruits and enhanced tomato shelf-life by 45 days. The high-yielding varieties developed by classical plant breeders have been essential to maintaining adequate food supplies for the ever-expanding world population (Bennetzen, 1996). Potentially, pests may reduce the yield of wheat by more than 50% and that of cotton more than 80%. These methods have given rise to serious limitations, and their place in sustainable modern agricultural systems is jeopardized. The Bt gene encodes the delta-endotoxin highly toxic to lepidopteran insects. It also helps in the marketing and storage of the agricultural commodities. Because tomatoes are susceptible to changes in climate, they have autocatalytic activities of ethylene during their ripening period. Every individual on earth has pesticide residues in their body, which have caused chronic diseases leading to death in human beings (Annett et al., 2014). Threats posed by conventional weed control methods to environment, food quality, and human health are discussed below followed by the discussion of the feasibility for developing the most efficient biological weed control approaches. Bt toxin is a crystal insecticidal protein (δ-endotoxin) produced from the cryo gene of a spore-forming soil bacterium B. thuringiensis. Most of the Indian farmers being poor have very little purchasing power and are unable to supply the prescribed doses of fertilizers. The principal characteristic of the HYVs were their high response to chemical fertilizers. Bt eggplant (Solanum melongena) was developed and field tested by the collaborative research between the US-based company Monsanto and Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company (Mahyco), India, by incorporating a crystal gene (Cry1Ac) from B. thuringiensis (Krattiger, 2010; Cotter, 2011). Nigeria releases 19 high yield crop varieties, one chicken breed to farmers By AgroBusiness Times on September 4, 2018 The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology produced 19 new varieties of crops with a high yield to increase agricultural production. HYV are water thirsty. One of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production is crop yield. You might also want to think about placing a few onions near or around your cucumber plants as studies show that not only will onions keep soil bacteria and insects away, but they increase the cucumber plants overall yield. The criteria for selection are high yield, disease resistance, response to fertilisers, tolerance to climate, etc. Prohibited Content 3. With this technology, the rice breeder is now able to transfer and incorporate desirable genes into rice genome, no matter where the gene comes from. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Consequently, the HYV in such areas either could not be diffused or they are not performing satisfactorily. Drying to an uniform moisture content of 14% w.b. Therefore increase in shelf-life or delay in the ripening process can be achieved by the introduction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase dsRNA in tomatoes, which suppresses the expression of ethylene genes. Within any agricultural community, the individuals vary in their receptivity of innovations and new agricultural techniques. The agrarian institutions like banks and cooperative credit societies have great responsibili­ties. The health and well-being of the world’s growing population are largely dependent on the ability of the agricultural industry to raise high yielding food and fiber crops. HYV can also fetch handsome amounts to the farmers only if a good market for the disposal of the commodity is available within a short distance of the place of production. This competition deprives crop plants of space, nutrients, moisture, light, and other growth requirements. These dwarf varieties give much higher yields per unit area. Certain weeds have also been reported to produce allelochemicals which suppress root and shoot growth of crop plants. The other inputs like chemical fertilizers and plant pro­tection chemicals can enhance the yield further. The downregulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf-life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits, because of the reduced rate of softening. These varieties require irrigation after every three weeks during the period of growth and development and after every two weeks at the flowering and primordial stages. It is High yielding varieties. TOS 7. Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. Therefore, it may lead to reduction of 1000 t of pesticide use in rice production every year. Content Guidelines 2. However, due to pest management practices, the yield reductions of wheat, maize, rice, soybean, and potatoes account for 26%, 31%, 37%, 29%, and 40%, respectively. The … high-yield variety Crop that has been specially bred or selected to produce more than the natural varieties of the same species. It is a well established fact that investment in research brings ten times profit to the investor. The variations in the income and dedication of the farmer to his oc­cupation are thus the major determinants in the fast or slow adoption of new innovations in agriculture. Elsanta) by an intron-hairpin-RNA construct containing the partial sense and corresponding antisense sequences of CHS was separated by an intron obtained from an F. ananassa quinone oxidoreductase gene. It was estimated that 200 g of Golden Rice could give 100% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A; therefore, it has great potential for solving vitamin A deficiency related diseases, such as blindness, in developing countries. For example, in the valley of Brahmaputra, Barak, and the hilly tracts of northeast India, there is heavy rainfall during the sum­mer season. Looking for abbreviations of HYV? Winter Wheat This article was written by Peter Johnson , Agronomist, Real Agriculture. This is not so in case of traditional varieties. Buy varieties that say they are compact or “bush” varieties. In case the farmer does not possess the operational capital, he should have an easy access to credit. fruitful - productive or conducive to producing in abundance; "be fruitful and multiply". Among them, transgenic plants with the insecticidal gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) might be the best example on agronomical improvement. Although, it involves centuries old practices, a major breakthrough in pest control was the development of pesticides. In the initial years of the Green Revolution (1968-70), in the states of Punjab and Haryana, the crop of wheat was largely damaged in the threshing grounds owing to the untimely rainfalls in the months of April and May. At present, other insecticidal proteins such as lectins, protease inhibitors, antibodies, wasp and spider toxins, microbial insecticides, and insect peptide hormones (Whetstone and Hammock, 2007; Van Damme, 2008) were successfully used for the development of insect-resistant vegetable crops. The Bt cry protein is nontoxic to humans and animals, but toxic to insects (BANR, 2000). Any lapse on the part of cultivator in the application of inputs may reduce the production and productivity substantially. The cultivation of delicate and highly sensitive seeds of new varieties needs the services of qualified and committed extension agents. Newer approaches are needed to meet the great increase in food production necessitated by population growth in … Transgenic tomato plants targeting more than one homolog than a single unit of ACC oxidase by using RNAi technology during the ripening stage would be more effective than a single homolog (Gupta et al., 2013). Privacy Policy 8. Ethylene suppression brings compositional changes to the fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. In fact, there are innovative and hardworking farmers within a village who perform better than their orthodox neighbours whose ef­ficiency may be comparatively low. Conventionally, weeds are controlled using manual, mechanical, and chemical methods (Chauvel et al., 2012). Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high-yielding varieties; however, it has its own limitations. The national average of NPK consump­tion is 75 kg per hectare while in Punjab and Haryana the average consumption of chemical fertilizers in about 170 kg and 110 kg per hectare respectively. For the application of plant pro­tection chemicals the farmers must have adequate knowledge of plant disease and their controlling chemicals. They usually require regular applications of fertilizer and other inputs. They require several watering at the critical stages of growth and flowering. Apart from canals, the government tube wells, pumping sets and tube wells installed by the farmers are necessary to fulfill the water demand of the new seeds. The lifestyle of the farmers and their aspirations for better stand­ard of living also determine their efficiency. The highest β-carotene content reached 1.6 μg per g in rice grains. This means that when fertilizers are supplied to high yielding varieties their yield increases substantially. The greatest achievement in the field of agriculture is the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insect-resistant crops using plant transgenic technology. Many wild species of plants, animals, and microorganisms emerged as pests of crop plants due to destruction of their natural habitats. By Riyo Posted on April 20, 2019. The yield varies from 10-15 To achieve this objective, intergeneric crosses were made using Ammomum subulatum, Alpinia neutans, Hedychium flavascene and Hedychium coronarium as male parents. Yield and yield consistency: select soybean varieties that are high yielding in public and private variety trials. The farmers can market their produce with ease, and are also able to purchase fertilizers, plant protection chemicals and other agricultural equipment’s from the market town. Simply put, crop yield is the After irrigation, chemical fertilizer is the second most important input required for the successful cultivation of HYV. Efficient transport and nearness to the market reduce the cost of transportation of the bulky and perishable agricultural commodities. The personal qualities of a farmer, his at­titude, beliefs, aspirations, progressiveness, and education, lifestyle and family values determine his capacity to adopt an agricultural innova­tion. Various types of proteinase inhibitors such as potato protease inhibitors II, cowpea trypsin inhibitors(CpTi), etc. The associated inputs like chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides also perform satisfactorily only if timely irrigation is pro­vided to the crop. Irrigation practices have caused salinization and waterlogging of cultivated soils. Modern farming tools and technology like tractors, threshers and sprayers are also imperative for the successful cultivation of HYV. Medson Chisi, Gary Peterson, in Sorghum and Millets (Second Edition), 2019. Tasawar Abbas, ... Robert J. Kremer, in Advances in Agronomy, 2018. HYV are, however, not very successful in the areas of heavy rainfall. As a matter of fact, in many cases, man behind the machine becomes more important than the machine itself. They then crossbreed these high-nutrient varieties with high-yielding varieties of crops, to provide a seed with high yields and increased nutritional value. Enormous machinery, like tractors, threshers, sprayers, tillers, chaff cutters, pumping sets, etc., are required for the timely operations of sowing, weeding, spraying and harvesting of HYV. This in turn has been accelerated by advances in digital technology applied through biostatistics and bioinformatics. Kailash C. Samal, Gyana Ranjan Rout, in Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops, 2018. Werner Mühlbauer, Joachim Müller, in Drying Atlas, 2020, Cultivation of high-yielding varieties with uniform ripening characteristics. The whole pathway of β-carotene biosynthesis was introduced into rice plants by simultaneously transforming of three foreign genes: one plant phytoene synthase (psy) gene originating from daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), one bacterial phytoene desaturase (crt1) gene originating from Erwinia uredovora, and the lycopene β-cyclase (lcy) gene originating from N. pseudonarcissus. The yield capacity of each variety is given as a percentage of the control varieties (which themselves are proven varieties of a number of years standing), which is rated as 100. Without irrigation, a surfeit of other inputs, therefore, is of no avail. In the absence of irrigation facilities, the farmers may not get even reasonable returns from their fields. evolving new high-yield crop varieties中文研究高產作物的新品種…,點擊查查權威綫上辭典詳細解釋evolving new high-yield crop varieties的中文翻譯,evolving new high-yield crop varieties的發音,音標,用法和例句等。 Thus controlled irri­gation is the key to success of new varieties of cereals. Weeds reduce the yields of major crops by 34% worldwide, which is higher than the losses caused by other pests (Jabran et al., 2015). And if the crops by small farmers are not sprayed, the insects may creep in the neighbouring fields and the disease may adversely affect larger areas. The experts and re­searchers who attempted to assess the role of human element in the adoption of agricultural innovations found great variations in the ag­ricultural practices and yield levels of different farmers living within a micro region of a village. It grows For the successful cultivation of HYV, there should be an efficient extension service which may guide the farmers about the various ag­ricultural operations and precautions. The new varieties introduced since the first HYVs are now often referred to as MVs (modern varieties). The farmers of Punjab and that of the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab (Meerut Division) are unanimous in their opinion that HYV of wheat and rice give double the yields per unit area, provided timely irriga­tion is made. Common factors for crop improvement - definition Crop variety improvement can be achieved by the process of selection. those high yielding varieties can achieve high yields of grain and whole crop. The list of 310 new crop varieties includes two bacterial leaf blight disease resistant rice (Pusa 1592 and Punjab Basmati-3), one blast disease resistant variety of rice (Pusa 1609), seedless variety of Nagpur orange, high temperature tolerant garden pea (Arka In this world of competition, only those are marching ahead who are progressive, innovative, receptive and efficient, while the conservative and less progressive are left behind. The poor and small farmers are thus deprived of the re­quired inputs, so essential for the successful cultivation of HYV of wheat and rice. For the recuperation of fertility, the soils are rested in the form of fallowing or they are en­riched by applying manures (compost and green) and chemical fertil­izers (NPK). Click here to learn the concepts of Important High Yield Crop Varieties from Biology Put a tick mark against the correct alternative in the following statements : Hybrid varieties of This is important not only for cost reduction in rice production, but also has huge health benefits. Several insecticidal Bt genes have been transformed into various types of rice, and all showed great potential for controlling the most important insect pests in rice. The actual yield you get depends on the crop’s maximum potential yield, which may in turn be reduced by: Any mismatch in the crop’s climate and soil adaptations compared to the actual climate/soil conditions that it’s grown in. High-yielding varieties are found naturally less resistant to pests in comparison with their progenitors. Content Filtrations 6. Weeds annually reduce yield of wheat by 18%–30% in Pakistan (Anonymous, 2012). The old mills and factories are unable to handle the increased supplies of wheat and rice. Early maturation: The high yielding varieties of crops take less time for maturing. The infrastructural facilities like transport network, marketing and storage facilities are also very crucial for the successful cultivation of HYV. Similarly, through the RNAi technique, two ripening-specific ethylene-induced N-glycoprotein modifying enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), were targeted and the shelf-life of tomato was enhanced by ≈2–2.5-fold with firmer fruits. Irrigation are both injurious to HYV of wheat and rice high yield crop varieties definition <  25 w.b. Are less efficient to finish the agricultural operations on time with uniform ripening characteristics which to! In Sorghum and Millets ( Second Edition ), etc. protocols and check. 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